Health Tips
Stay healthy by reading wellness advice from our top specialists.
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Healthy Living Plan

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Vitamins in Body

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Vitamins in Body

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How to Perform Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)?

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Heart Attack

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A heart attack happens when there is a sudden complete blockage of an artery that supplies blood to an area of your heart.

A heart is a muscle, and it needs a good blood supply to keep it healthy.

As we get older, the smooth inner walls of the arteries that supply the blood to the heart can become damaged and narrow due to the build up of fatty materials, called plaque.

When an area of plaque breaks, blood cells and other parts of the blood stick to the damaged area and form blood clots. A heart attack occurs when a blood clot completely blocks the flow of blood and seriously reduces blood flow to the heart muscle. This also results in patients experiencing chest pain.

As a result, some of the heart muscle starts to die.

The longer the blockage is left untreated, the more the heart muscle is damaged. If the blood flow is not restored quickly, the damage to the heart muscle is permanent.

A heart attack is sometimes called a myocardial infarction (MI), acute myocardial infarction, coronary occlusion or coronary thrombosis.

A heart attack happens when there is a sudden complete blockage of an artery that supplies blood to an area of your heart.
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Causes
The underlying cause of a heart attack is coronary heart disease.

Some people may not know they have coronary heart disease until they have a heart attack. For others, a heart attack can happen after weeks, months or years of having coronary heart disease.

Symptoms
Heart attack warning signs can vary from person to person, and they may not always be sudden or severe. Read about heart attack warning signs

Diagnosis
If you are rushed to hospital with a suspected heart attack, your health care team will do some tests to find out if you are having a heart attack. They may include:

electrocardiogram (ECG)
blood tests
chest X-ray
coronary angiogram.
These tests will help them to decide the best treatment for you. Find out more about medical tests

Treatment
Emergency treatment
If you think you’re having a heart attack, call Triple Zero (000). Don’t hang up. Ask the operator for an ambulance. Too many people lose their lives because they wait too long to get treatment for heart attack.

You may be given medicines to help dissolve clots.

There is a high risk of dangerous changes to your heartbeat after the start of a heart attack. The most serious changes stop your heart beating and cause a cardiac arrest. Ambulance or hospital staff may use a defibrillator to give your heart a controlled electric shock that may make it start beating again.

In hospital
In hospital, you will receive treatments that help to reduce damage to your heart, and to help prevent future problems. You may need to have a procedure like:

angioplasty and stent implantation
bypass surgery (also known as coronary artery bypass grafts or CABG).
Read more about heart procedures and devices

Preventing further problems
Medical treatments and healthy lifestyle choices can help your heart attack recovery, greatly reduce your risk of further heart problems, and relieve or control symptoms such as angina. Read about living with heart disease

Cardiac rehabilitation
If you’ve had a heart attack or a procedure, you should be given information about a cardiac rehabilitation program which is another really important step in your recovery.

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Valvular Heart

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What is Valvular Heart Disease?
Valvular heart disease is characterized by damage to or a defect in one of the four heart valves: the mitral, aortic, tricuspid or pulmonary. The mitral and tricuspid valves control the flow of blood between the atria and the ventricles (the upper and lower chambers of the heart). The pulmonary valve controls the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs, and the aortic valve governs blood flow between the heart and the aorta, and thereby the blood vessels to the rest of the body. The mitral and aortic valves are the ones most frequently affected by valvular heart disease.

Normally functioning valves ensure that blood flows with proper force in the proper direction at the proper time. In valvular heart disease, the valves become too narrow and hardened (stenotic) to open fully, or are unable to close completely (incompetent).

A stenotic valve forces blood to back up in the adjacent heart chamber. While an incompetent valve allows blood to leak back into the chamber it previously exited. To compensate for poor pumping action, the heart muscle enlarges and thickens, thereby losing elasticity and efficiency. In addition, in some cases, blood pooling in the chambers of the heart has a greater tendency to clot, increasing the risk of stroke or pulmonary embolism.

The severity of valvular heart disease varies. In mild cases there may be no symptoms, while in advanced cases, valvular heart disease may lead to congestive heart failure and other complications. Treatment depends upon the extent of the disease.

When to Call an Ambulance?
Call an ambulance if you experience severe chest pain.


When to Call Your Doctor?
Call your physician if you develop persistent shortness of breath, palpitations or dizziness.

What are the symptoms?
Valve disease symptoms can occur suddenly, depending upon how quickly the disease develops. If it advances slowly, then your heart may adjust and you may not notice the onset of any symptoms easily. Additionally, the severity of the symptoms does not necessarily correlate to the severity of the valve disease. That is, you could have no symptoms at all, but have severe valve disease. Conversely, severe symptoms could arise from even a small valve leak.
Many of the symptoms are similar to those associated with congestive heart failure, such as shortness of breath and wheezing after limited physical exertion and swelling of the feet, ankles, hands or abdomen (edema). Other symptoms include:
Palpitations, chest pain (may be mild)
Fatigue
Dizziness or fainting (with aortic stenosis)
Fever (with bacterial endocarditis)
Rapid weight gain

What are the causes?
There are many different types of valve disease; some types can be present at birth (congenital), while others may be acquired later in life.

Heart valve tissue may degenerate with age.
Rheumatic fever may cause valvular heart disease.
Bacterial endocarditis, an infection of the inner lining of the heart muscle and heart valves (endocardium), is a cause of valvular heart disease.
High blood pressure and atherosclerosis may damage the aortic valve.
A heart attack may damage the muscles that control the heart valves.
Other disorders such as carcinoid tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or syphilis may damage one or more heart valves.
Methysergide, a medication used to treat migraine headaches, and some diet drugs may promote valvular heart disease.
Radiation therapy (used to treat cancer) may be associated with valvular heart disease.


What are the prevention steps?
Get prompt treatment for a sore throat that lasts longer than 48 hours, especially if accompanied by a fever. Timely administration of antibiotics may prevent the development of rheumatic fever which can cause valvular heart disease. A heart-healthy lifestyle is also advised to reduce the risks of high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and heart attack.
Don’t smoke.
Consume no more than two alcoholic beverages a day.
Eat a healthy, balanced diet low in salt and fat, exercise regularly and lose weight if you are overweight.
Adhere to a prescribed treatment program for other forms of heart disease.
If you are diabetic, maintain careful control of your blood sugar.

Dr. Sayali Shinde
Dr. Sayali Shinde
BAMS, Pune
Dr. Mayur Narayankar
Dr. Mayur Narayankar
MS/MD - Ayurveda, 5 yrs, Pune
Dr. Amruta Siddha
Dr. Amruta Siddha
MBBS, ENT Specialist, 9 yrs, Pune
Dr. Suhas Shingte
Dr. Suhas Shingte
BAMS, Family Physician General Physician, 18 yrs, Pune
Dr. Abhinandan J
Dr. Abhinandan J
BAMS, Ayurveda Family Physician, 1 yrs, Pune
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