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Meningitis

Dr. HelloDox Care #
HelloDox Care
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Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord.

The swelling from meningitis typically triggers symptoms such as headache, fever and a stiff neck.

Most cases of meningitis in the United States are caused by a viral infection, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are other causes. Some cases of meningitis improve without treatment in a few weeks. Others can be life-threatening and require emergency antibiotic treatment.

Seek immediate medical care if you suspect that someone has meningitis. Early treatment of bacterial meningitis can prevent serious complications.

Symptoms
Early meningitis symptoms may mimic the flu (influenza). Symptoms may develop over several hours or over a few days.

Possible signs and symptoms in anyone older than the age of 2 include:

Sudden high fever
Stiff neck
Severe headache that seems different than normal
Headache with nausea or vomiting
Confusion or difficulty concentrating
Seizures
Sleepiness or difficulty waking
Sensitivity to light
No appetite or thirst
Skin rash (sometimes, such as in meningococcal meningitis)
Signs in newborns
Newborns and infants may show these signs:

High fever
Constant crying
Excessive sleepiness or irritability
Inactivity or sluggishness
Poor feeding
A bulge in the soft spot on top of a baby's head (fontanel)
Stiffness in a baby's body and neck
Infants with meningitis may be difficult to comfort, and may even cry harder when held.

When to see a doctor
Seek immediate medical care if you or someone in your family has meningitis symptoms, such as:

Fever
Severe, unrelenting headache
Confusion
Vomiting
Stiff neck
Bacterial meningitis is serious, and can be fatal within days without prompt antibiotic treatment. Delayed treatment increases the risk of permanent brain damage or death.

It's also important to talk to your doctor if a family member or someone you work with has meningitis. You may need to take medications to prevent getting the infection.

Causes
Viral infections are the most common cause of meningitis, followed by bacterial infections and, rarely, fungal infections. Because bacterial infections can be life-threatening, identifying the cause is essential.

Bacterial meningitis
Bacteria that enter the bloodstream and travel to the brain and spinal cord cause acute bacterial meningitis. But it can also occur when bacteria directly invade the meninges. This may be caused by an ear or sinus infection, a skull fracture, or, rarely, after some surgeries.

Several strains of bacteria can cause acute bacterial meningitis, most commonly:

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). This bacterium is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, young children and adults in the United States. It more commonly causes pneumonia or ear or sinus infections. A vaccine can help prevent this infection.
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus). This bacterium is another leading cause of bacterial meningitis. These bacteria commonly cause an upper respiratory infection but can cause meningococcal meningitis when they enter the bloodstream. This is a highly contagious infection that affects mainly teenagers and young adults. It may cause local epidemics in college dormitories, boarding schools and military bases. A vaccine can help prevent infection.
Haemophilus influenzae (haemophilus). Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacterium was once the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. But new Hib vaccines have greatly reduced the number of cases of this type of meningitis.
Listeria monocytogenes (listeria). These bacteria can be found in unpasteurized cheeses, hot dogs and lunchmeats. Pregnant women, newborns, older adults and people with weakened immune systems are most susceptible. Listeria can cross the placental barrier, and infections in late pregnancy may be fatal to the baby.
Viral meningitis
Viral meningitis is usually mild and often clears on its own. Most cases in the United States are caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, which are most common in late summer and early fall. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, HIV, mumps, West Nile virus and others also can cause viral meningitis.

Chronic meningitis
Slow-growing organisms (such as fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that invade the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain cause chronic meningitis. Chronic meningitis develops over two weeks or more. The signs and symptoms of chronic meningitis — headaches, fever, vomiting and mental cloudiness — are similar to those of acute meningitis.

Fungal meningitis
Fungal meningitis is relatively uncommon and causes chronic meningitis. It may mimic acute bacterial meningitis. Fungal meningitis isn't contagious from person to person. Cryptococcal meningitis is a common fungal form of the disease that affects people with immune deficiencies, such as AIDS. It's life-threatening if not treated with an antifungal medication.

Other meningitis causes
Meningitis can also result from noninfectious causes, such as chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer and inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis.

Risk factors
Risk factors for meningitis include:

Skipping vaccinations. Risk rises for anyone who hasn't completed the recommended childhood or adult vaccination schedule.
Age. Most cases of viral meningitis occur in children younger than age 5. Bacterial meningitis is common in those under age 20.
Living in a community setting. College students living in dormitories, personnel on military bases, and children in boarding schools and child care facilities are at greater risk of meningococcal meningitis. This is probably because the bacterium is spread by the respiratory route, and spreads quickly through large groups.
Pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the risk of listeriosis — an infection caused by listeria bacteria, which may also cause meningitis. Listeriosis increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and premature delivery.
Compromised immune system. AIDS, alcoholism, diabetes, use of immunosuppressant drugs and other factors that affect your immune system also make you more susceptible to meningitis. Having your spleen removed also increases your risk, and anyone without a spleen should get vaccinated to minimize that risk.
Complications
Meningitis complications can be severe. The longer you or your child has the disease without treatment, the greater the risk of seizures and permanent neurological damage, including:

Hearing loss
Memory difficulty
Learning disabilities
Brain damage
Gait problems
Seizures
Kidney failure
Shock
Death
With prompt treatment, even patients with severe meningitis can have good recovery.

Prevention
Common bacteria or viruses that can cause meningitis can spread through coughing, sneezing, kissing, or sharing eating utensils, a toothbrush or a cigarette.

These steps can help prevent meningitis:

Wash your hands. Careful hand-washing helps prevent the spread of germs. Teach children to wash their hands often, especially before eating and after using the toilet, spending time in a crowded public place or petting animals. Show them how to vigorously and thoroughly wash and rinse their hands.
Practice good hygiene. Don't share drinks, foods, straws, eating utensils, lip balms or toothbrushes with anyone else. Teach children and teens to avoid sharing these items too.
Stay healthy. Maintain your immune system by getting enough rest, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Cover your mouth. When you need to cough or sneeze, be sure to cover your mouth and nose.
If you're pregnant, take care with food. Reduce your risk of listeriosis by cooking meat, including hot dogs and deli meat, to 165 F (74 C). Avoid cheeses made from unpasteurized milk. Choose cheeses that are clearly labeled as being made with pasteurized milk.
Immunizations
Some forms of bacterial meningitis are preventable with the following vaccinations:

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Children in the United States routinely receive this vaccine as part of the recommended schedule of vaccines, starting at about 2 months of age. The vaccine is also recommended for some adults, including those who have sickle cell disease or AIDS and those who don't have a spleen.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). This vaccine also is part of the regular immunization schedule for children younger than 2 years in the United States. Additional doses are recommended for children between the ages of 2 and 5 who are at high risk of pneumococcal disease, including children who have chronic heart or lung disease or cancer.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). Older children and adults who need protection from pneumococcal bacteria may receive this vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the PPSV23 vaccine for all adults older than 65; for younger adults and children age 2 and older who have weak immune systems or chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes or sickle cell anemia; and for anyone who doesn't have a spleen.
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a single dose be given to children ages 11 to 12, with a booster shot given at age 16. If the vaccine is first given between ages 13 and 15, the booster is recommended between ages 16 and 18. If the first shot is given at age 16 or older, no booster is necessary.

This vaccine can also be given to children between the ages of 2 months and 10 years who are at high risk of bacterial meningitis or who have been exposed to someone with the disease. It's also used to vaccinate healthy but previously unvaccinated people who have been exposed in outbreaks.

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मेनिंजायटीस

Dr. HelloDox Care #
HelloDox Care
Consult



मेनिंजायटीस

मेनिंजायटीस लक्षण
खालील वैशिष्ट्ये मेनिंजायटीस दर्शवितात:
- अचानक अति ताप
- कडक गर्दन
- गंभीर डोकेदुखी
- मळमळ किंवा उलट्या सह डोकेदुखी
- गोंधळ
- दौरे
- झोप
- चालणे कठीण
- भूक किंवा तहान नाही
- त्वचा फोड
- मुलांमध्ये गरीब आहार आणि चिडचिडपणा
- फोटोफोबिया
- थकवा
- आंदोलन
- बाळांना फॉन्टनेल्स
- वेगवान श्वास


मेनिंजायटीस चे साधारण कारणे खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत:
- स्ट्रेप्टोकोकस न्यूमोनिया बॅक्टेरिया
- निसरेरिया मॅनिंजिटीडिस बॅक्टेरिया
- हेमोफिलस इन्फ्लूएंझा प्रकार बी (हिब) जीवाणू
- हर्पस सिम्प्लेक्स व्हायरस
- मानवी इम्यूनोडेफिशियन्सी व्हायरस (एचआयव्ही)
- क्रोनिक मेनिंजायटीस
- फंगल मेनिंजायटीस
- लिस्टरिया मोनोसाइटोजेनेस
- रासायनिक खळबळ
- औषध एलर्जी
- काही प्रकारचे कर्करोग
- सारकोइडायसिस सारख्या दाहक रोग

खालील घटक मेनिंजायटीस ची शक्यता वाढवू शकतात:
- वगळता लसीकरण
- 5 वर्षे वयाच्या वयोगटातील मुले वयाच्या 20 वर्षांखालील
- एक समुदाय सेटिंग मध्ये राहणे
- गर्भधारणा
- तडजोड केलेले रोगप्रतिकार प्रणाली

मेनिंजायटीस टाळण्यासाठी संभव आहे?
होय, मेनिंजायटीस प्रतिबंधित करणे संभव आहे. खालील गोष्टी करून प्रतिबंध करणे शक्य आहे:
- मेनिंगोकोकस टीका
- अँटिबायोटिक्स वापरतात

मेनिंजायटीस ची शक्यता आणि प्रकरणांची संख्या
खालीलप्रमाणे जगभरात प्रत्येक वर्षी मेनिंजायटीस प्रकरणांची संख्या दिसली आहेत:
- 1 ते 10 दशलक्ष प्रकरणांमध्ये सामान्य

सामान्य वयोगटातील जमाव
- मेनिंजायटीस कोणत्याही वयात होऊ शकतो.

सामान्य लिंग
- मेनिंजायटीस कोणत्याही लिंगात होऊ शकतो.


प्रयोगशाळेतील चाचण्या आणि प्रक्रियांचा वापर मेनिंजायटीस शोधण्यासाठी केला जातो:
- रक्त संस्कृती: विशिष्ट जीवाणूंचा शोध व अभ्यास करणे.
- संगणकीकृत टोमोग्राफी (सीटी): डोके आणि शरीरातील इतर भागांमध्ये सूज, सूज किंवा संक्रमण शोधणे.
- चुंबकीय अनुनाद (एमआर) स्कॅनः सूज किंवा सूज शोधणे.
- स्पाइनल टॅप (लंबर पँचर): सेरेब्रोस्पिनील फ्लुइडमध्ये साखर पातळी, प्रथिने आणि पांढर्या रक्त पेशींचे मूल्यांकन करणे.
- पॉलीमरेझ चेन रिएक्शन (पीसीआर) ऍम्प्लिफिकेशन: विशिष्ट कारण आणि योग्य उपचार निश्चित करणे.


जर रुग्णांना मेनिंजायटीस चे लक्षण असतील तर खालील तज्ञांना भेट द्यावे:
- संक्रामक रोग विशेषज्ञ
- न्यूरोलॉजिस्ट
- बालरोगतज्ज्ञ

उपचार न केल्यास मेनिंजायटीस च्या अधिक समस्या गुंतागुंतीची होते?
होय, जर उपचार न केल्यास मेनिंजायटीस गुंतागुंतीचा होतो. मेनिंजायटीस वर उपचार न केल्यास, उद्भवणार्या गुंतागुंती आणि समस्यांची सूची खाली दिली आहे:
- सुनावणी कमी
- मेमरी अडचण
- शिक्षणक्षमता
- धक्का
- मूत्रपिंड अपयश
- दौरे
- चालणे समस्या
- मेंदुला दुखापत
- घातक असू शकते

खालीलप्रमाणे आत्म-काळजी किंवा जीवनशैलीत बदल मेनिंजायटीस च्या उपचार किंवा व्यवस्थापनास मदत करू शकतात:
- हात स्वच्छ धुवा: काळजीपूर्वक हात धुणे रोगापासून बचाव करण्यास मदत करते.
- चांगली स्वच्छता घ्या: पेय, पदार्थ, पेंढा, खाण्यायोग्य भांडी, लिंबू बाम किंवा टूथब्रश इतर कोणाबरोबरही शेअर करू नका.
- निरोगी आहार घ्या.
- आपले तोंड झाकून घ्या: शिंकताना किंवा खोकताना आपला नाक आणि तोंड झाकून टाका.
- धूम्रपान टाळा: सिगारेटचा धूर टाळा.

मेनिंजायटीस उपचारांची वेळ
प्रत्येक रुग्णाच्या उपचारांकरिता वेळ-कालावधी भिन्न असू शकते, तज्ञांच्या पर्यवेक्षणानुसार योग्यरित्या उपचार केल्यास मेनिंजायटीस निराकरण करण्यासाठी विशिष्ट कालावधी लागतो:
- 1 - 4 आठवडे

मेनिंजायटीस संसर्गजन्य आहे का?
होय, मेनिंजायटीस संक्रामक असल्याचे माहीत आहे. हे खालील माध्यमांद्वारे लोकांमध्ये पसरू शकते.:
- विशिष्ट जीवाणू अन्न माध्यमातून पसरली
- माता जन्म किंवा जन्माच्या वेळी बाळांना जीवाणू देतात
- खोकला
- शिंकणे
- चुंबन

Dr. Sandeep Borse
Dr. Sandeep Borse
MBBS, Internal Medicine Specialist Neurotologist, 5 yrs, Pune
Dr. Sandeep Jagtap
Dr. Sandeep Jagtap
MD - Allopathy, HIV Specialist Pain Management Specialist, 15 yrs, Pune
Dr. Maya Golikere
Dr. Maya Golikere
BAMS, Panchakarma General Physician, 2 yrs, Pune
Dr. Himashree Wankhede
Dr. Himashree Wankhede
MBBS, Ophthalmologist Cataract surgeon, 5 yrs, Pune
Dr. Anushree Bhonde
Dr. Anushree Bhonde
BPTh, Physiotherapist, 11 yrs, Pune
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