An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a sign of another condition.
The term "cardiomegaly" refers to an enlarged heart seen on any imaging test, including a chest X-ray. Other tests are then needed to diagnose the condition causing your enlarged heart.
You may develop an enlarged heart temporarily because of a stress on your body, such as pregnancy, or because of a medical condition, such as the weakening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, heart valve problems or abnormal heart rhythms.
Certain conditions may cause the heart muscle to thicken or one of the chambers of the heart to dilate, making the heart larger. Depending on the condition, an enlarged heart may be temporary or permanent.
An enlarged heart may be treatable by correcting the cause. Treatment for an enlarged heart can include medications, medical procedures or surgery.
In some people, an enlarged heart causes no signs or symptoms. Others may have these signs and symptoms:
Shortness of breath
Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia)
When to see a doctor
An enlarged heart is easier to treat when it's detected early, so talk to your doctor if you have concerns about your heart.
If you have new signs or symptoms that might be related to your heart, make an appointment to see your doctor.
Seek emergency medical care if you have any of these signs and symptoms, which may mean you're having a heart attack:
Discomfort in other areas of the upper body, including one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach
Severe shortness of breath
An enlarged heart can be caused by conditions that cause your heart to pump harder than usual or that damage your heart muscle. Sometimes the heart enlarges and becomes weak for unknown reasons (idiopathic).
A heart condition you're born with (congenital), damage from a heart attack or an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) can cause your heart to enlarge. Other conditions associated with an enlarged heart include:
High blood pressure. Your heart may have to pump harder to deliver blood to the rest of your body, enlarging and thickening the muscle.
High blood pressure can cause the left ventricle to enlarge, causing the heart muscle eventually to weaken. High blood pressure may also enlarge the upper chambers of your heart (atria).
Heart valve disease. Four valves in your heart keep blood flowing in the right direction. If the valves are damaged by conditions such as rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge.
Disease of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy). As this thickening and stiffening of heart muscle progresses, your heart may enlarge to try to pump more blood to your body.
High blood pressure in the artery connecting your heart and lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Your heart may need to pump harder to move blood between your lungs and your heart. As a result, the right side of your heart may enlarge.
Fluid around your heart (pericardial effusion). Accumulation of fluid in the sac (pericardium) that contains your heart may cause your heart to appear enlarged on a chest X-ray.
Low red blood cell count (anemia). Anemia is a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues. Untreated, chronic anemia can lead to a rapid or irregular heartbeat. Your heart must pump more blood to make up for the lack of oxygen in the blood.
Thyroid disorders. Both an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) can lead to heart problems, including an enlarged heart.
Excessive iron in the body (hemochromatosis). Hemochromatosis is a disorder in which your body doesn't properly metabolize iron, causing it to build up in various organs, including your heart. This can cause an enlarged left ventricle due to weakening of the heart muscle.
Rare diseases that can affect your heart, such as amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is a condition in which abnormal proteins circulate in the blood and may be deposited in the heart, interfering with your heart's function and causing it to enlarge.
You may have a greater risk of developing an enlarged heart if you have any of the following risk factors:
High blood pressure. Having a blood pressure measurement higher than 140/90 millimeters of mercury puts you at an increased risk of developing an enlarged heart.
A family history of enlarged hearts or cardiomyopathy. If an immediate family member, such as a parent or sibling, has had an enlarged heart, you may be more susceptible to developing the condition.
Blocked arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease). With this condition, fatty plaques in your heart arteries obstruct blood flow through your heart vessels, which can lead to a heart attack. When a section of heart muscle dies, your heart has to pump harder to get adequate blood to the rest of your body, causing it to enlarge.
Congenital heart disease. If you're born with a condition that affects the structure of your heart, you may be at risk of developing an enlarged heart.
Heart valve disease. The heart has four valves — aortic, mitral, pulmonary and tricuspid — that open and close to direct blood flow through your heart. Conditions that damage the valves may cause the heart to enlarge.
Heart attack. Having a heart attack increases your risk of developing an enlarged heart.
The risk of complications from an enlarged heart depends on the part of the heart that is enlarged and the cause.
Complications of an enlarged heart can include:
Heart failure. One of the most serious types of enlarged heart, an enlarged left ventricle increases the risk of heart failure. In heart failure, your heart muscle weakens, and the ventricles stretch (dilate) to the point that the heart can't pump blood efficiently throughout your body.
Blood clots. Having an enlarged heart may make you more susceptible to forming blood clots in the lining of your heart. If clots enter your bloodstream, they can block blood flow to vital organs, even causing a heart attack or stroke. Clots that develop on the right side of your heart may travel to your lungs, a dangerous condition called a pulmonary embolism.
Heart murmur. For people who have an enlarged heart, two of the heart's four valves — the mitral and tricuspid valves — may not close properly because they become dilated, leading to a backflow of blood. This flow creates sounds called heart murmurs. Although not necessarily harmful, heart murmurs should be monitored by your doctor.
Cardiac arrest and sudden death. Some forms of an enlarged heart can lead to disruptions in your heart's beating rhythm. Heart rhythms too slow to move blood or too fast to allow the heart to beat properly can result in fainting or, in some cases, cardiac arrest or sudden death.
Tell your doctor if you have a family history of conditions that can cause an enlarged heart, such as cardiomyopathy. If cardiomyopathy or other heart conditions are diagnosed early, treatments may prevent the disease from worsening.
Controlling risk factors for coronary artery disease — tobacco use, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes — helps to reduce your risk of an enlarged heart and heart failure by reducing your risk of a heart attack.
You can help reduce your chance of developing heart failure by eating a healthy diet and not abusing alcohol or using illicit drugs. Controlling high blood pressure with diet, exercise and possibly medications also prevents many people who have an enlarged heart from developing heart failure.
Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate. The hearts of adults at rest usually beat between 60 and 100 times a minute. If you have bradycardia (brad-e-KAHR-dee-uh), your heart beats fewer than 60 times a minute.
Bradycardia can be a serious problem if the heart doesn't pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body. For some people, however, bradycardia doesn't cause symptoms or complications.
An implanted pacemaker can correct bradycardia and help your heart maintain an appropriate rate.
If you have bradycardia, your brain and other organs might not get enough oxygen, possibly causing these symptoms:
Near-fainting or fainting (syncope)
Dizziness or lightheadedness
Shortness of breath
Confusion or memory problems
Easily tiring during physical activity
When a slow heart rate is normal
A resting heart rate slower than 60 beats a minute is normal for some people, particularly healthy young adults and trained athletes. For them, bradycardia isn't considered a health problem.
When to see a doctor
A number of conditions can cause signs and symptoms of bradycardia. It's important to get a prompt, accurate diagnosis and appropriate care. See your doctor if you or your child has symptoms of bradycardia.
If you faint, have difficulty breathing or have chest pain lasting more than a few minutes, get emergency care or call 911 or your local emergency number. Seek emergency care for anyone with these symptoms.
Bradycardia can be caused by:
Heart tissue damage related to aging
Damage to heart tissues from heart disease or heart attack
Heart disorder present at birth (congenital heart defect)
Infection of heart tissue (myocarditis)
A complication of heart surgery
Underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)
Imbalance of chemicals in the blood, such as potassium or calcium
Repeated disruption of breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea)
Inflammatory disease, such as rheumatic fever or lupus
Medications, including some drugs for other heart rhythm disorders, high blood pressure and psychosis
Electrical circuitry of the heart
Your heart comprises four chambers — two upper (atria) and two lower (ventricles). A natural pacemaker (the sinus node), situated in the right atrium, normally controls your heart rhythm by producing electrical impulses that initiate each heartbeat.
These electrical impulses travel across the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. Then these impulses arrive at a cluster of cells called the atrioventricular (AV) node.
The AV node transmits the signal to a collection of cells called the bundle of His. These cells transmit the signal down a left branch serving the left ventricle and a right branch serving the right ventricle, which causes the ventricles to contract and pump blood — the right ventricle sending oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and the left ventricle sending oxygen-rich blood to the body.
Bradycardia occurs when electrical signals slow down or are blocked.
Sinus node problems
Bradycardia often starts in the sinus node. A slow heart rate might occur because the sinus node:
Discharges electrical impulses slower than is normal
Pauses or fails to discharge at a regular rate
Discharges an electrical impulse that's blocked before causing the atria to contract
In some people, the sinus node problems result in alternating slow and fast heart rates (bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome).
Heart block (atrioventricular block)
Bradycardia can also occur because electrical signals transmitted through the atria aren't transmitted to the ventricles (heart block, or atrioventricular block).
Heart blocks are classified based on the degree to which signals from the atria reach your heart's main pumping chambers (ventricles).
First-degree heart block. In the mildest form, all electrical signals from the atria reach the ventricles, but the signal is slowed. First-degree heart block rarely causes symptoms and usually needs no treatment if there's no other abnormality in electrical signal conduction.
Second-degree heart block. Not all electrical signals reach the ventricles. Some beats are "dropped," resulting in a slower and sometimes irregular rhythm.
Third-degree (complete) heart block. None of the electrical impulses from the atria reaches the ventricles. When this happens, a natural pacemaker takes over, but this results in slow and sometimes unreliable electrical impulses to control the beat of the ventricles.
A key risk factor for bradycardia is age. Heart problems, which are often associated with bradycardia, are more common in older adults.
Risk factors related to heart disease
Bradycardia is often associated with damage to heart tissue from some type of heart disease.
Therefore, factors that increase your risk of heart disease can also increase the risk of bradycardia. Lifestyle changes or medical treatment might decrease the risk of heart disease associated with the following factors:
High blood pressure
Heavy alcohol use
Recreational drug use
Psychological stress or anxiety
If bradycardia causes symptoms, possible complications can include:
Frequent fainting spells
Inability of the heart to pump enough blood (heart failure)
Sudden cardiac arrest or sudden death
The most effective way to prevent bradycardia is to reduce your risk of developing heart disease. If you already have heart disease, monitor it and follow your treatment plan to lower your risk of bradycardia.
Prevent heart disease
Treat or eliminate risk factors that may lead to heart disease. Take the following steps:
Exercise and eat a healthy diet. Live a heart-healthy lifestyle by exercising regularly and eating a healthy, low-fat, low-salt, low-sugar diet that's rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases your risk of developing heart disease.
Keep blood pressure and cholesterol under control. Make lifestyle changes and take medications as prescribed to correct high blood pressure (hypertension) or high cholesterol.
Don't smoke. If you smoke and can't quit on your own, talk to your doctor about strategies or programs to help you break a smoking habit.
If you drink, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.
Ask your doctor if your condition means you should avoid alcohol. If you can't control your alcohol use, talk to your doctor about a program to quit drinking and manage other behaviors related to alcohol abuse.
Don't use recreational drugs. Talk to your doctor about an appropriate program for you if you need help ending recreational drug use.
Manage stress. Avoid unnecessary stress and learn coping techniques to handle normal stress in a healthy way.
Go to scheduled checkups. Have regular physical exams and report signs or symptoms to your doctor.
Monitor and treat existing heart disease
If you already have heart disease, there are steps you can take to lower your risk of developing bradycardia or another heart rhythm disorder:
Follow the plan. Be sure you understand your treatment plan, and take all medications as prescribed.
Report changes immediately. If your symptoms change or worsen or you develop new symptoms, tell your doctor immediately.
वाढलेली हार्ट म्हणजे काय?
वाढलेल्या हृदयाच्या स्थितीला आयडियापॅथिक डिलीटेड कार्डिओमायोपॅथी म्हटले जाते. जेव्हा हृदय, संक्रमण, तणाव किंवा इतर हृदयाच्या परिस्थितीमुळे हृदय वाढते तेव्हा लोकांना बर्याचदा त्यांच्या आयुष्यात उपचारांची आवश्यकता असते. तथापि, बर्याचदा वाढलेल्या हृदयाचे ज्ञात कारण नसते. वाढलेल्या हृदयाचे लक्ष सुधारू शकते, परंतु बर्याचदा, वाढीच्या कारणास सुधारण्यासाठी उपचार आवश्यक आहे.
बाप्टिस्ट हेल्थ हृदय रोग असलेल्या रुग्णांसाठी आणि वाढत्या हृदयाचे निदान, व्यवस्थापन आणि उपचारांसाठी प्रगत, उत्कृष्ट काळजी घेण्यासाठी ओळखले जाते. सकारात्मक आणि मैत्रीपूर्ण वातावरणात, आपल्या समस्यांवरील वेळेवर भेटी आणि आदरपूर्वक लक्ष द्याल. बाप्टिस्ट हेल्थवर, आपल्याला या क्षेत्रातील सर्वात व्यापक, बहु-अनुशासनात्मक कार्यसंघातील विशेषज्ञ आणि नाविन्यपूर्ण थेरपीजमध्ये प्रवेश आहे ज्यात केवळ विशिष्ट क्लिनिकल ट्रायल्सद्वारे उपलब्ध आहेत. आपल्या आरोग्यावर विश्वास ठेवणाऱ्यांस उत्कृष्ट काळजीपूर्वक प्रदर्शित करण्यासाठी आम्ही प्रत्येक प्रकारे प्रयत्न करतो.
चिन्हे आणि लक्षणे
वाढलेली हृदय लक्षणे उपस्थित नसू शकतात किंवा प्रथम हळूहळू प्रगती न झाल्यास प्रथम लक्ष न दिले जाऊ शकतात. म्हणूनच वाढलेली हृदयाची तपासणी करण्यासाठी नियमित तपासणी करणे महत्वाचे आहे. आपल्या डॉक्टरांना पहा, जर आपल्याकडे असे काही लक्षणे आहेत ज्यात समाविष्ट असू शकेल:
श्वासोच्छ्वास किंवा श्वासोच्छ्वास करणारा आवाज जेव्हा शारीरिकरित्या सक्रिय किंवा झपाटलेला असतो तेव्हा होऊ शकतो
वगळलेले हृदयाचे ठोके
ओटीपोटात वजन वाढणे
आपल्याकडे खालील वाढीव हृदयाच्या लक्षणे असल्यास, आपत्कालीन उपचार त्वरित मिळवा कारण आपल्याला हृदयविकाराचा झटका येत असेल:
- छाती दुखणे
- श्वास घेण्यात गंभीर अडचण
- कंटाळवाणे किंवा जवळच्या-फॅनिंग spells
वाढलेल्या हृदयाचे कारण अशा घटकांमधून उद्भवू शकतात ज्यात समाविष्ट असू शकते:
- हृदयाचे अवरुद्ध धमन (कोरोनरी हृदयरोग)
- हृदयाच्या स्नायूचा रोग (कार्डिओमायोपॅथी)
- उच्च रक्तदाब
- उच्च कोलेस्टरॉल
- हृदयरोग आणि फुफ्फुसाकडे जाणारी धमनीमध्ये उच्च रक्तदाब (फुफ्फुसांचे उच्च रक्तदाब)
- तंबाखू, दारू आणि कोकेन वापर
- जोखिम घटक
- वाढीव हृदयाच्या जोखीम घटकांचा समावेश असू शकतोः
1. अॅनिमिया: लाल रक्तपेशींची कमतरता जी रक्त ऑक्सिजन घेऊन जाते ती हृदयाला अधिक जलद आणि हृदय वाढवते.
2. जन्मजात हृदयविकार: लोक अशा हृदयाने जन्म घेऊ शकतात ज्यामध्ये अनोखी रचना असते ज्यामुळे हृदय वाढू शकते.
3. कनेक्टिव्ह टिश्यू रोग: मार्फन सिंड्रोम सारख्या अटी वाढत्या हृदयात योगदान देऊ शकतात.
4. शरीरात जास्त लोह: जेव्हा लोह मेटाबॉलाइझ केले जात नाही तेव्हा ते हृदयात गोळा होते आणि डाव्या वेट्रिकला वाढवते.
5. कौटुंबिक इतिहासः जर एखाद्या रुग्णाचा पालक किंवा भावंडांचा वाढलेला हृदय असेल तर स्थिती विकसित करण्यासाठी जोखीम वाढते.
6. हृदयावरील द्रव: द्रव हृदयाभोवती गोळा होऊ शकतो आणि हृदयाचा कडक पंप होऊ शकतो, ज्यामुळे वाढ वाढते.
7. हृदयविकाराचा झटका: मागील हृदयविकाराचा झटका एक वाढलेला हृदय होऊ शकतो.
8. हार्ट वाल्व्ह रोग: जेव्हा हृदयाच्या वाल्वचा संधिवात ताप, तापजन्य दोष, संक्रमण, औषधे किंवा रेडिएशन उपचारांद्वारे होणारे वाढ होते तेव्हा वाढ होऊ शकते.
9. दुर्मिळ रोग: अमीलॉइडोसिससह काही विशिष्ट परिस्थितींमुळे हृदयाच्या वाढीस प्रोटीन तयार होते.
10. थायरॉईड विकार: अतिव्यापी (हायपरथायरॉईडीझम) किंवा अंडरएक्टिव्ह (हायपोथायरायडिज्म) थायरॉईडमुळे वाढलेली हृदय होऊ शकते.