Interstitial cystitis (in-tur-STISH-ul sis-TIE-tis) — also called painful bladder syndrome — is a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pelvic pain. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe.
Your bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine. The bladder expands until it's full and then signals your brain that it's time to urinate, communicating through the pelvic nerves. This creates the urge to urinate for most people.
With interstitial cystitis, these signals get mixed up — you feel the need to urinate more often and with smaller volumes of urine than most people.
Interstitial cystitis most often affects women and can have a long-lasting impact on quality of life. Although there's no cure, medications and other therapies may offer relief.
The signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis vary from person to person. If you have interstitial cystitis, your symptoms may also vary over time, periodically flaring in response to common triggers, such as menstruation, sitting for a long time, stress, exercise and sexual activity.
Interstitial cystitis signs and symptoms include:
Pain in your pelvis or between the vagina and anus in women
Pain between the scrotum and anus in men (perineum)
Chronic pelvic pain
A persistent, urgent need to urinate
Frequent urination, often of small amounts, throughout the day and night (up to 60 times a day)
Pain or discomfort while the bladder fills and relief after urinating.
Pain during sexual intercourse.
Symptoms severity is different for everyone, and some people may experience symptom-free periods.
Although signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis may resemble those of a chronic urinary tract infection, there's usually no infection. However, symptoms may worsen if a person with interstitial cystitis gets a urinary tract infection.
When to see a doctor
If you're experiencing chronic bladder pain or urinary urgency and frequency, contact your doctor.
The exact cause of interstitial cystitis isn't known, but it's likely that many factors contribute. For instance, people with interstitial cystitis may also have a defect in the protective lining (epithelium) of the bladder. A leak in the epithelium may allow toxic substances in urine to irritate your bladder wall.
Other possible but unproven contributing factors include an autoimmune reaction, heredity, infection or allergy.
These factors are associated with a higher risk of interstitial cystitis:
Your sex. Women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis more often than men. Symptoms in men may mimic interstitial cystitis, but they're more often associated with an inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis).
Your skin and hair color. Having fair skin and red hair has been associated with a greater risk of interstitial cystitis.
Your age. Most people with interstitial cystitis are diagnosed during their 30s or older.
Having a chronic pain disorder. Interstitial cystitis may be associated with other chronic pain disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome or fibromyalgia.
Interstitial cystitis can result in a number of complications, including:
Reduced bladder capacity. Interstitial cystitis can cause stiffening of the bladder wall, which allows your bladder to hold less urine.
Lower quality of life. Frequent urination and pain may interfere with social activities, work and other activities of daily life.
Sexual intimacy problems. Frequent urination and pain may strain your personal relationships, and sexual intimacy may suffer.
Emotional troubles. The chronic pain and interrupted sleep associated with interstitial cystitis may cause emotional stress and can lead to depression.
Cystitis (sis-TIE-tis) is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder. Most of the time, the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, and it's called a urinary tract infection (UTI). A bladder infection can be painful and annoying, and it can become a serious health problem if the infection spreads to your kidneys.
Less commonly, cystitis may occur as a reaction to certain drugs, radiation therapy or potential irritants, such as feminine hygiene spray, spermicidal jellies or long-term use of a catheter. Cystitis may also occur as a complication of another illness.
The usual treatment for bacterial cystitis is antibiotics. Treatment for other types of cystitis depends on the underlying cause.
Cystitis signs and symptoms often include:
A strong, persistent urge to urinate
A burning sensation when urinating
Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
Passing cloudy or strong-smelling urine
A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen
In young children, new episodes of accidental daytime wetting also may be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Nighttime bed-wetting on its own isn't likely to be associated with a UTI.
When to see a doctor
Seek immediate medical help if you have signs and symptoms common to a kidney infection, including:
Back or side pain
Fever and chills
Nausea and vomiting
If you develop urgent, frequent or painful urination that lasts for several hours or longer or if you notice blood in your urine, call your doctor. If you've been diagnosed with a UTI in the past and you develop symptoms that mimic a previous UTI, call your doctor.
Also call your doctor if cystitis symptoms return after you've finished a course of antibiotics. You may need a different type of medication.
If your child starts having daytime wetting accidents, call your pediatrician.
In otherwise healthy men, cystitis is rare and should be investigated by your doctor.
Your urinary system includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. All play a role in removing waste from your body. Your kidneys — a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of your upper abdomen — filter waste from your blood and regulate the concentrations of many substances. Tubes called ureters carry urine from your kidneys to the bladder, where it's stored until it exits your body through the urethra.
UTIs typically occur when bacteria outside the body enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply. Most cases of cystitis are caused by a type of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria.
Bacterial bladder infections may occur in women as a result of sexual intercourse. But even sexually inactive girls and women are susceptible to lower urinary tract infections because the female genital area often harbors bacteria that can cause cystitis.
Although bacterial infections are the most common cause of cystitis, a number of noninfectious factors also may cause the bladder to become inflamed. Some examples include:
Interstitial cystitis. The cause of this chronic bladder inflammation, also called painful bladder syndrome, is unclear. Most cases are diagnosed in women. The condition can be difficult to diagnose and treat.
Drug-induced cystitis. Certain medications, particularly the chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, can cause inflammation of your bladder as the broken-down components of the drugs exit your body.
Radiation cystitis. Radiation treatment of the pelvic area can cause inflammatory changes in bladder tissue.
Foreign-body cystitis. Long-term use of a catheter can predispose you to bacterial infections and to tissue damage, both of which can cause inflammation.
Chemical cystitis. Some people may be hypersensitive to chemicals contained in certain products, such as bubble bath, feminine hygiene sprays or spermicidal jellies, and may develop an allergic-type reaction within the bladder, causing inflammation.
Cystitis associated with other conditions. Cystitis may sometimes occur as a complication of other disorders, such as diabetes, kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or spinal cord injuries.
Some people are more likely than others to develop bladder infections or recurrent urinary tract infections. Women are one such group. A key reason is physical anatomy. Women have a shorter urethra, which cuts down on the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
Women at greatest risk of UTIs include those who:
Are sexually active. Sexual intercourse can result in bacteria being pushed into the urethra.
Use certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms are at increased risk of a UTI. Diaphragms that contain spermicidal agents further increase your risk.
Are pregnant. Hormonal changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of a bladder infection.
Have experienced menopause. Altered hormone levels in postmenopausal women are often associated with UTIs.
Other risk factors in both men and women include:
Interference with the flow of urine. This can occur in conditions such as a stone in the bladder or, in men, an enlarged prostate.
Changes in the immune system. This can happen with certain conditions, such as diabetes, HIV infection and cancer treatment. A depressed immune system increases the risk of bacterial and, in some cases, viral bladder infections.
Prolonged use of bladder catheters. These tubes may be needed in people with chronic illnesses or in older adults. Prolonged use can result in increased vulnerability to bacterial infections as well as bladder tissue damage.
In men without any predisposing health issues, cystitis is rare.
When treated promptly and properly, bladder infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, they can become something more serious. Complications may include:
Kidney infection. An untreated bladder infection can lead to kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis (pie-uh-low-nuh-FRY-tis). Kidney infections may permanently damage your kidneys.
Young children and older adults are at the greatest risk of kidney damage from bladder infections because their symptoms are often overlooked or mistaken for other conditions.
Blood in the urine. With cystitis, you may have blood cells in your urine that can be seen only with a microscope (microscopic hematuria) and that usually resolves with treatment. If blood cells remain after treatment, your doctor may recommend a specialist to determine the cause.
Blood in the urine that you can see (gross hematuria) is rare with typical, bacterial cystitis, but this sign is more common with chemotherapy- or radiation-induced cystitis.
Cranberry juice or tablets containing proanthocyanidin are often recommended to help reduce the risk of recurrent bladder infections for some women. However, recent studies suggest that it's less effective than previously thought. Some smaller studies demonstrated a small benefit, but larger studies found no significant benefit.
As a home remedy, avoid cranberry juice if you're taking the blood-thinning medication warfarin (Coumadin). Possible interactions between cranberry juice and warfarin can lead to bleeding.
Although these preventive self-care measures aren't well-studied, doctors sometimes recommend the following for repeated bladder infections:
Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking lots of fluids is especially important if you're getting chemotherapy or radiation therapy, particularly on treatment days.
Urinate frequently. If you feel the urge to urinate, don't delay using the toilet.
Wipe from front to back after a bowel movement. This prevents bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.
Take showers rather than tub baths. If you're susceptible to infections, showering rather than bathing may help prevent them.
Gently wash the skin around the vagina and anus. Do this daily, but don't use harsh soaps or wash too vigorously. The delicate skin around these areas can become irritated.
Empty your bladder as soon as possible after intercourse. Drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.
Avoid using deodorant sprays or feminine products in the genital area. These products can irritate the urethra and bladder.
इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस लक्षण
खालील वैशिष्ट्ये इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस दर्शवितात:
- तीव्र पेल्विक वेदना
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- सतत, मूत्रपिंडाची त्वरित गरज
- वारंवार मूत्रविसर्जन
- मूत्राशय भरल्यावर त्रास होतो आणि मूत्रपिंडानंतर आराम
- लैंगिक संभोग दरम्यान वेदना
- इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस चे साधारण कारण
- इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस चे साधारण कारणे खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत:
- ऑटोइम्यून प्रतिक्रिया
- मूत्राशयाच्या संरक्षणात्मक अस्तर (उपकार्य) मध्ये दोष
इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस साठी जोखिम घटक
खालील घटक इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस ची शक्यता वाढवू शकतात:
- सुंदर त्वचा आणि लाल केसांचा रंग
- वय 30 किंवा त्याहून अधिक वयाचे
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इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस टाळण्यासाठी
नाही, इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस प्रतिबंधित करणे शक्य नाही.
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इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस ची शक्यता
खालीलप्रमाणे जगभरात प्रत्येक वर्षी इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस प्रकरणांची संख्या दिसली आहेत:
- अत्यंत सामान्य; 10 दशलक्ष प्रकरणे
- इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस कोणत्याही वयात होऊ शकतो.
- इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस कोणत्याही लिंगात होऊ शकतो.
प्रयोगशाळेतील चाचण्या आणि प्रक्रियांचा वापर इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस शोधण्यासाठी केला जातो:
- वैद्यकीय इतिहास आणि मूत्राशय डायरीः आपण किती द्रवपदार्थ पिणे आणि आपण किती प्रमाणात मूत्र द्यावे ते मोजण्यासाठी
- पेल्विक परीक्षा: बाह्य जननेंद्रिया, योनी आणि गर्भाशयाचे मूल्यांकन करणे
- मूत्र चाचणी: मूत्रमार्गाच्या संक्रमणाची चिन्हे तपासण्यासाठी
- सिस्टोस्कोपी: मूत्राशयाची क्षमता निर्धारित करण्यासाठी
- बायोप्सी: मूत्राशय कर्करोग आणि मूत्राशय वेदना इतर दुर्मिळ कार्यांचे निदान करण्यासाठी
- मूत्र सायटोलॉजी: कर्करोगाच्या उपस्थितीचे मूल्यांकन करणे
- पोटॅशियम संवेदनशीलता चाचणी: इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिसचे मूल्यांकन करणे
जर रुग्णांना इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस चे लक्षण असतील तर खालील तज्ञांना भेट द्यावे:
उपचार न केल्यास इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस च्या अधिक समस्या होते?
होय, जर उपचार न केल्यास इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस गुंतागुंतीचा होतो. इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस वर उपचार न केल्यास, उद्भवणार्या गुंतागुंती आणि समस्यांची सूची खाली दिली आहे:
- मूत्राशयाची भिंत कडक होणे
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- लैंगिक अंतर्मुखता समस्या
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इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस वर उपचार करण्यासाठी खालील पद्धतींचा उपयोग केला जातो:
- ट्रान्सक्युटेनियस इलेक्ट्रिकल नर्व उत्तेजना: मूत्राशयात रक्त प्रवाह वाढविते आणि श्रोणीच्या वेदना कमी करते.
- सेक्रल नर्व उत्तेजना: इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिसशी संबंधित मूत्रपिंडाची तात्कालिकता कमी करते.
- मूत्राशय विचलन: लक्षणे सुधारते.
- शस्त्रक्रिया: वेदना कमी करते आणि इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिसचा उपचार करते
इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस साठी स्वत: घ्यावयाचि काळजी
खालीलप्रमाणे आत्म-काळजी किंवा जीवनशैलीत बदल इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस च्या उपचार किंवा व्यवस्थापनास मदत करू शकतात:
- मसालेदार आहार टाळा: आपल्या आहारातील अन्न मर्यादित करा जे आपले मूत्राशय उत्तेजित करते.
- मूत्राशय आरामदायी प्रशिक्षण मिळवा: विश्रांती तंत्रांचा वापर करून मूत्र अपील नियंत्रित करण्यासाठी.
- ढीग कपडे घाला: आपल्या पोटावर दबाव आणणारी बेल्ट किंवा कपडे घाला.
- धूम्रपान टाळा: तणाव कमी करून.
- व्यायामः इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिसचे लक्षणे कमी करते.
इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस च्या उपचारांसाठी पर्यायी औषध
खालील पर्यायी औषध आणि चिकित्सा इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस च्या उपचार किंवा व्यवस्थापनास मदत म्हणून ओळखले जातात:
- एक्यूपंक्चर थेरपी: आयुर्मानाच्या प्रवाहाचे पुनरुत्थान करून दुःख आणि इतर लक्षणे कमी करते.
इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस रुग्णांना खालील क्रिया मदत करू शकतात:
- समर्थन गट: समर्थन गटात सामील होऊन, इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिसबद्दल सहानुभूतीपूर्ण ऐकणे आणि उपयुक्त माहिती प्रदान करते
इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस उपचारांची वेळ
प्रत्येक रुग्णाच्या उपचारांकरिता वेळ-कालावधी भिन्न असू शकते, तज्ञांच्या पर्यवेक्षणानुसार योग्यरित्या उपचार केल्यास इंटरस्टिशनल सिस्टिटिस निराकरण करण्यासाठी विशिष्ट कालावधी लागतो:
- 1 - 3 महिन्यांत
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