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Hallucinations and delusions are among the most common symptoms of schizophrenia. Both are considered positive symptoms, meaning they are not seen in healthy people.

Hallucinations are defined as experiences and sensations that are not comprehensible to others. To the person experiencing them, however, they may seem real, urgent, and vivid. Roughly 70% of people with schizophrenia will experience hallucinations.

Auditory hallucinations are most commonly experienced by people with schizophrenia and may include hearing voices—sometimes multiple voices — or other sounds like whispering or murmuring. Voices may seem angry or urgent and often make demands on the hallucinating person.

Visual hallucinations involve seeing objects, people, lights, or patterns that are not actually present. Visualizing dead loved ones, friends or other people they knew can be particularly distressing. Perception may be altered as well resulting in difficulty judging distance

Olfactory hallucinations involve the sense of smell or taste, both good or bad, that are not actually present. This can be particularly dangerous if a person believes he is being poisoned and refrains from eating.

Tactile hallucinations are feelings of movement or sensation on your body that are not actually present such as hands on your body or insects crawling around or inside you.

Hallucinations don’t necessarily indicate schizophrenia. People with mood disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other physical and mental health conditions may also hallucinate. Hallucination may also occur when under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

Delusions are defined as beliefs that conflict with reality. Delusions are one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia. These beliefs might include:

Persecutory delusions: When a person believes a person, group, or organization is mistreating or harming them despite contradictory evidence.

Erotomanic delusions: When a person believes another is in love with them, despite no evidence. This other person is often a celebrity or person in power.

Somatic delusions: When a person believes they have an illness or their body is affected by a strange condition, despite contradictory evidence.

Grandiose delusions: When a person believes they have superior abilities or qualities (i.e. talent, fame, wealth) despite no evidence.

Sometimes a person will experience a recurring theme in their delusions over a period, which makes them seem more convincing to the individual experiencing them. Hallucinations are sometimes categorized as secondary delusions if they involve having a false belief in the voice they are hearing or other sensation they are experiencing.

भ्रम/भास (हल्लूसिनॅशन ):--

- या प्रकारामध्ये व्यक्तीचे मन त्याला काहीतरी सुचवत
असते.जसे कि काहीतरी दिसल्याचा भास होणे किंवा
कशाचीही जणीव होणे, वास येत नसेल तरीही या
प्रकारात व्यक्तीला वास येणे हे सर्व या व्यक्तीच्या
मनामध्ये सुरु असते आणि या व्यक्ती हे सर्व खरे
समजून तसे वागतात. पॅरानॉईड स्किझोफ्रेनिया चे

दोन प्रकारांमध्ये वर्गीकरण केल्या जाते.
१. श्रवणविषयक भास होणे.
(ऑडीटोरी हल्लूसिनॅशन )

२. संवेदनिक भास(सेन्सोरी हल्लूसिनॅशन )
यामध्ये आपण आधी श्रवणविषयक भास व्यक्तीला

कसे होतात ते समजून घेऊयात.
१. श्रवणविषक भास:-

- यामध्ये व्यक्तीला कुणीतरी व्यक्ती त्यांच्याशी संवाद
साधते आहे असे वाटते, इतरांना हा आवाज येत नसतो.

- कुणीतरी त्यांची थट्टा उडवून, त्यांच्यावर हसण्याच्या
आवाजाचा भास होत असतो. कुणीतरी त्यांच्यावर
टीका करत आहे असे त्यांना आवाज येतात

- असह्य/कटू/निर्दयी अशा टिपण्णी त्यांच्या कुणीतरी
करत आहे असा आवाज येतो.

- सगळ्यात वाईट म्हणजे यामध्ये व्यक्तीला कुणीतरी
आपल्याला आज्ञा देत आहे असेही आवाज येतात
ज्यामध्ये रुग्णव्यक्तीला आत्महत्या करण्यासाठी सुद्धा
कुणीतरी आज्ञा देते आहे असे ऐकू येते.

- या सर्व श्रवणविषयक होणारे भास व्यक्ती खरे
समजते त्यावर विश्वास ठेवते आणि तशीच प्रतिक्रिया
त्याला देते. यामधील आता दुसरा प्रकार आपण

२. संवेदनिक भास(सेन्सोरी हल्लूसिनॅशन )

- यामध्ये व्यक्तीला वास येण्याचा भास होतो जो कि
इतरांना येत नाही.

- चवीविषयी सुद्धा या व्यक्तींना भास होतात जे कि सत्य

- काहीवेळेस या व्यक्तीला त्यांच्या हातावर किंवा
पायावर काहीतरी किडा चालतो आहे अशी जाणीव
होते. काही नसले तरी त्यांना हि जाणीव खरी असल्याचे

- काहीवेळेस हे सर्व भास त्यांना खूप भीतीदायक

Dr. Bhushan Chaudhari
Dr. Bhushan Chaudhari
MD - Allopathy, Addiction Psychiatrist Adolescent And Child Psychiatrist, 10 yrs, Pune
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Dr. Rajiv Srivastava
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Dr. Dipak S Kolte
Dr. Dipak S Kolte
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Dr. Dinkar Padade
Dr. Dinkar Padade
MS/MD - Ayurveda, Ayurveda, 30 yrs, Pune
Dr. Suhas Shingte
Dr. Suhas Shingte
BAMS, Family Physician General Physician, 18 yrs, Pune