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HIV Screening Test

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HIV Screening Test

What is an HIV test?
An HIV test shows whether you are infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). HIV is a virus that attacks and destroys cells in the immune system. These cells protect your body against disease-causing germs, such as bacteria and viruses. If you lose too many immune cells, your body will have trouble fighting off infections and other diseases.

There are three main types of HIV tests:

Antibody Test. This test looks for HIV antibodies in your blood or saliva. Your immune system makes antibodies when you are exposed to bacteria or viruses, like HIV. An HIV antibody test can determine if you have HIV from 3–12 weeks after infection. That's because it can take a few weeks or longer for your immune system to make antibodies to HIV. You may be able to do an HIV antibody test in the privacy of your home. Ask your health care provider about at-home HIV test kits.
HIV Antibody/Antigen Test. This test looks for HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. An antigen is a part of a virus that triggers an immune response. If you've been exposed to HIV, antigens will show up in your blood before HIV antibodies are made. This test can usually find HIV within 2–6 weeks of infection. The HIV antibody/antigen test is one of the most common types of HIV tests.
HIV Viral Load. This test measures the amount of the HIV virus in the blood. It can find HIV faster than antibody and antibody/antigen tests, but it is very expensive. It is mostly used for monitoring HIV infections.
Other names: HIV antibody/antigen tests, HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody and antigen evaluation, HIV test, human immunodeficiency virus antibody test, type 1, HIV p24 antigen test

What is it used for?
An HIV test is used to find out if you have been infected with HIV. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Most people with HIV don't have AIDS. People with AIDS have an extremely low number of immune cells and are at risk for life-threatening illnesses, including dangerous infections, a severe type of pneumonia, and certain cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma.

If HIV is found early, you can get medicines to protect your immune system. HIV medicines may prevent you from getting AIDS.

Why do I need an HIV test?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care. You may also need an HIV test if you are at higher risk for infection. HIV is mainly spread through sexual contact and blood, so you may be at a higher risk for HIV if you:

Are a man that has had sex with another man
Have had sex with an HIV-infected partner
Have had multiple sex partners
Have injected drugs, such as heroin, or shared drug needles with someone else
HIV can spread from mother to child during birth and through breast milk, so if you are pregnant your doctor may order an HIV test. There are medicines you can take during pregnancy and delivery to greatly reduce your risk of spreading the disease to your baby.

What happens during an HIV test?
You will either get a blood test in a lab, or do your own test at home.

For a blood test in a lab:

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.
For at home test, you will need to get a sample of saliva from your mouth or a drop of blood from your fingertip.

The test kit will provide instructions on how to get your sample, package it, and send it to a lab.
For a saliva test, you will use special spatula-like tool to take a swab from your mouth.
For a fingertip antibody blood test, you will use a special tool to prick your finger and collect a sample of blood.
For more information on at-home testing, talk to your health care provider.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?
You don't need any special preparations for an HIV test. But you should talk with a counselor before and/or after your test so you can better understand what the results mean and your treatment options if you are diagnosed with HIV.

Are there any risks to the test?
There is very little risk to having any HIV screening test. If you get a blood test from a lab, you may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?
If your result is negative, it can mean you don't have HIV. A negative result may also mean you have HIV but it's too soon to tell. It can take a few weeks for HIV antibodies and antigens to show up in your body. If your result is negative, your health care provider may order additional HIV tests at a later date.

If your result is positive, you will get a follow-up test to confirm the diagnosis. If both tests are positive, it means you have HIV. It does not mean you have AIDS. While there is no cure for HIV, there are better treatments available now than in the past. Today, people with HIV are living longer, with a better quality of life than ever before. If you are living with HIV, it's important to see your health care provider regularly.

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HIV Test

Dr. HelloDox Care #
HelloDox Care
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What is HIV?

HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. The immune system helps the body fight off infections. Untreated HIV infects and kills CD4 cells, which are a type of immune cell called T cells. Over time, as HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various types of infections and cancers.

HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids that include:
blood
semen
vaginal and rectal fluids
breast milk
The virus doesn’t spread in air or water, or through casual contact.

HIV is a lifelong condition and currently there is no cure, although many scientists are working to find one. However, with medical care, including treatment called antiretroviral therapy, it’s possible to manage HIV and live with the virus for many years.

Without treatment, a person with HIV is likely to develop a serious condition called AIDS. At that point, the immune system is too weak to fight off other diseases and infections. Untreated, life expectancy with AIDS is about three years. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-controlled and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV.

It’s estimated that 1.1 million Americans are currently living with HIV. Of those people, 1 in 5 don’t know they have the virus.

HIV can cause changes throughout the body. Learn about the effects of HIV on the different systems in the body.

What is AIDS?

AIDS is a disease that can develop in people with HIV. It’s the most advanced stage of HIV. But just because a person has HIV doesn’t mean they’ll develop AIDS.

HIV kills CD4 cells. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimeter. A person with HIV whose CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimeter will be diagnosed with AIDS.

A person can also be diagnosed with AIDS if they have HIV and develop an opportunistic infection or cancer that’s rare in people who don’t have HIV. An opportunistic infection, such as pneumonia, is one that takes advantage of a unique situation, such as HIV.

Untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS within a decade. There’s no cure for AIDS, and without treatment, life expectancy after diagnosis is about three years. This may be shorter if the person develops a severe opportunistic illness. However, treatment with antiretroviral drugs can prevent AIDS from developing.

If AIDS does develop, it means that the immune system is severely compromised. It’s weakened to the point where it can no longer fight off most diseases and infections. That makes the person vulnerable to a wide range of illnesses, including:

pneumonia
tuberculosis
oral thrush, a fungal infection in the mouth or throat
cytomegalovirus (CMV), a type of herpes virus
cryptococcal meningitis, a fungal infection in the brain
toxoplasmosis, a brain infection caused by a parasite
cryptosporidiosis, an infection caused by an intestinal parasite
cancer, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and lymphoma
The shortened life expectancy linked with untreated AIDS isn’t a direct result of the syndrome itself. Rather, it’s a result of the diseases and complications that arise from having an immune system weakened by AIDS. Learn more about possible complications that can arise from HIV and AIDS.


A Comprehensive Guide to HIV and AIDS

What is AIDS?

HIV and AIDS
HIV transmission
Causes of HIV
Causes of AIDS
HIV tests
HIV window period
Early symptoms of HIV
HIV symptoms
HIV rash
HIV symptoms in men
HIV symptoms in women
AIDS symptoms
HIV treatment
HIV medications
HIV prevention
Living with HIV
HIV life expectancy
HIV vaccine
HIV statistics
What is HIV?
HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. The immune system helps the body fight off infections. Untreated HIV infects and kills CD4 cells, which are a type of immune cell called T cells. Over time, as HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various types of infections and cancers.

HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids that include:

blood
semen
vaginal and rectal fluids
breast milk
The virus doesn’t spread in air or water, or through casual contact.

HIV is a lifelong condition and currently there is no cure, although many scientists are working to find one. However, with medical care, including treatment called antiretroviral therapy, it’s possible to manage HIV and live with the virus for many years.

Without treatment, a person with HIV is likely to develop a serious condition called AIDS. At that point, the immune system is too weak to fight off other diseases and infections. Untreated, life expectancy with AIDS is about three years. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-controlled and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV.

It’s estimated that 1.1 million Americans are currently living with HIV. Of those people, 1 in 5 don’t know they have the virus.

HIV can cause changes throughout the body. Learn about the effects of HIV on the different systems in the body.

What is AIDS?
AIDS is a disease that can develop in people with HIV. It’s the most advanced stage of HIV. But just because a person has HIV doesn’t mean they’ll develop AIDS.

HIV kills CD4 cells. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimeter. A person with HIV whose CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimeter will be diagnosed with AIDS.

A person can also be diagnosed with AIDS if they have HIV and develop an opportunistic infection or cancer that’s rare in people who don’t have HIV. An opportunistic infection, such as pneumonia, is one that takes advantage of a unique situation, such as HIV.

Untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS within a decade. There’s no cure for AIDS, and without treatment, life expectancy after diagnosis is about three years. This may be shorter if the person develops a severe opportunistic illness. However, treatment with antiretroviral drugs can prevent AIDS from developing.

If AIDS does develop, it means that the immune system is severely compromised. It’s weakened to the point where it can no longer fight off most diseases and infections. That makes the person vulnerable to a wide range of illnesses, including:

pneumonia
tuberculosis
oral thrush, a fungal infection in the mouth or throat
cytomegalovirus (CMV), a type of herpes virus
cryptococcal meningitis, a fungal infection in the brain
toxoplasmosis, a brain infection caused by a parasite
cryptosporidiosis, an infection caused by an intestinal parasite
cancer, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and lymphoma
The shortened life expectancy linked with untreated AIDS isn’t a direct result of the syndrome itself. Rather, it’s a result of the diseases and complications that arise from having an immune system weakened by AIDS. Learn more about possible complications that can arise from HIV and AIDS.

HIV and AIDS: What’s the connection?
To develop AIDS, a person has to have contracted HIV. But having HIV doesn’t necessarily mean that someone will develop AIDS.

Cases of HIV progress through three stages:

stage 1: acute stage, the first few weeks after transmission
stage 2: clinical latency, or chronic stage
stage 3: AIDS
As HIV lowers the CD4 cell count, the immune system weakens. A typical adult’s CD4 count is 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimeter. A person with a count below 200 is considered to have AIDS.

How quickly a case of HIV progresses through the chronic stage varies significantly from person to person. Without treatment, it can last up to a decade before advancing to AIDS. With treatment, it can last indefinitely.

There is no cure for HIV, but it can be controlled. People with HIV often have a near-normal lifespan with early treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Along those same lines, there’s technically no cure for AIDS. However, treatment can increase a person’s CD4 count to the point where they’re considered to no longer have AIDS. (This point is a count of 200 or higher.) Also, treatment can typically help manage opportunistic infections.

HIV and AIDS are related, but they’re not the same thing. Learn more about the difference between HIV and AIDS.

HIV transmission: Know the facts
Anyone can contract HIV. The virus is transmitted in bodily fluids that include:

blood
semen
vaginal and rectal fluids
breast milk
Some of the ways HIV is spread from person to person include:

through vaginal or anal sex — the most common route of transmission, especially among men who have sex with men
by sharing needles, syringes, and other items for injection drug use
by sharing tattoo equipment without sterilizing it between uses
during pregnancy, labor, or delivery from a woman to her baby
during breastfeeding
through “pre-mastication,” or chewing a baby’s food before feeding it to them
through exposure to the blood of someone living with HIV, such as through a needle stick
The virus can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion or organ and tissue transplant. However, rigorous testing for HIV among blood, organ, and tissue donors ensures that this is very rare in the United States.

It’s theoretically possible, but considered extremely rare, for HIV to spread through:

oral sex (only if there are bleeding gums or open sores in the person’s mouth)
being bitten by a person with HIV (only if the saliva is bloody or there are open sores in the person’s mouth)
contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and the blood of someone living with HIV
HIV does NOT spread through:

skin-to-skin contact
hugging, shaking hands, or kissing
air or water
sharing food or drinks, including drinking fountains
saliva, tears, or sweat (unless mixed with the blood of a person with HIV)
sharing a toilet, towels, or bedding
mosquitoes or other insects
It’s important to note that if a person with HIV is being treated and has a persistently undetectable viral load, it’s virtually impossible to transmit the virus to another person.

Causes of HIV
HIV is a variation of a virus that infects African chimpanzees. Scientists suspect the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) jumped from chimps to humans when people consumed infected chimpanzee meat. Once inside the human population, the virus mutated into what we now know as HIV. This likely occurred as long ago as the 1920s.

HIV spread from person to person throughout Africa over the course of several decades. Eventually, the virus migrated to other parts of the world. Scientists first discovered HIV in a human blood sample in 1959.

It’s thought that HIV has existed in the United States since the 1970s, but it didn’t start to hit public consciousness until the 1980s. Learn more about the history of HIV and AIDS in the United States.


Causes of AIDS
AIDS is caused by HIV. A person can’t get AIDS if they haven’t contracted HIV.

Healthy individuals have a CD4 count of 500 to 1,500 per cubic millimeter. Without treatment, HIV continues to multiply and destroy CD4 cells. If a person’s CD4 count falls below 200, they have AIDS.

Also, if someone with HIV develops an opportunistic infection associated with HIV, they can still be diagnosed with AIDS, even if their CD4 count is above 200.

What tests are used to diagnose HIV?
Several different tests can be used to diagnose HIV. Healthcare providers determine which test is best for each person.

Antibody/antigen tests
Antibody/antigen tests are the most commonly used tests. They can show positive results typically within 18–45 days after someone initially contracts HIV.

These tests check the blood for antibodies and antigens. An antibody is a type of protein the body makes to fight an infection. An antigen, on the other hand, is the part of the virus that activates the immune system.

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HIV Testing

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HIV Testing

Key Points

HIV testing shows whether a person has HIV. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone 13 to 64 years old get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care and that people at high risk of infection get tested more often.
Risk factors for HIV infection include having vaginal or anal sex with someone who is HIV positive or whose HIV status you don’t know; having sex with many partners; and injecting drugs and sharing needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with others.
CDC recommends that all pregnant women get tested for HIV so that they can begin taking HIV medicines if they are HIV positive.


What is HIV testing?
HIV testing shows whether a person has HIV. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.
HIV testing can detect HIV infection, but it can’t tell how long a person has been infected with HIV or if the person has AIDS.

Why is HIV testing important?
Knowing your HIV status can help keep you—and others—safe.

If you are HIV negative:
Testing shows that you don’t have HIV. Continue taking steps to avoid getting HIV, such as using condoms during sex and, if you are at high risk of becoming infected, taking medicines to prevent HIV (called pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP). For more information, read the AIDSinfo fact sheet on HIV prevention.

If you are HIV positive:
Testing shows that you have HIV, but you can still take steps to protect your health. Begin by talking to your health care provider about antiretroviral therapy (ART). People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines every day to treat HIV infection. ART helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives and reduces the risk of transmission of HIV. People with HIV should start ART as soon as possible. Your health care provider will help you decide which HIV medicines to take.

Who should get tested for HIV?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone 13 to 64 years old get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care. As a general rule, people at high risk for HIV infection should get tested each year. Sexually active gay and bisexual men may benefit from getting tested more often, such as every 3 to 6 months.

Factors that increase the risk of HIV infection include:
Having vaginal or anal sex with someone who is HIV positive or whose HIV status you don’t know
Injecting drugs and sharing needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with others
Exchanging sex for money or drugs
Having a sexually transmitted disease (STD), such as syphilis
Having hepatitis or tuberculosis (TB)
Having sex with anyone who has any of the HIV risk factors listed above

Talk to your health care provider about your risk of HIV infection and how often you should get tested for HIV.

Should pregnant women get tested for HIV?
Experts recommends that all pregnant women get tested for HIV so that they can begin taking HIV medicines if they are HIV positive. Women with HIV take HIV medicines during pregnancy and childbirth to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to protect their own health. For more information, read the AIDSinfo fact sheet on Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

What are the types of HIV tests?
There are three types of tests used to diagnose HIV infection: antibody tests, antigen/antibody tests, and nucleic acid tests (NATs). How soon each test can detect HIV infection differs, because each test has a different window period. The window period is the time between when a person gets HIV and when a test can accurately detect HIV infection.

Antibody tests check for HIV antibodies in blood or oral fluid. HIV antibodies are disease-fighting proteins that the body produces in response to HIV infection. Most rapid tests and home use tests are antibody tests.
Antigen/antibody tests can detect both HIV antibodies and HIV antigens (a part of the virus) in blood.
NATs look for HIV in the blood.

A person’s initial HIV test will usually be either an antibody test or an antigen/antibody test. NATs are very expensive and not routinely used for HIV screening unless the person had a high-risk exposure or a possible exposure with early symptoms of HIV infection.

When an HIV test is positive, a follow-up test will be conducted. Sometimes people will need to visit a health care provider to take a follow-up test. Other times the follow-up test may be performed in a lab using the same blood sample that was provided for the first test. A positive follow-up test confirms that a person has HIV.

Talk to your health care provider about your HIV risk factors and the best type of HIV test for you.

Is HIV testing confidential?
HIV testing can be confidential or anonymous.

Confidential testing means that your HIV test results will include your name and other identifying information, and the results will be included in your medical record. HIV-positive test results will be reported to local or state health departments to be counted in statistical reports. Health departments remove all personal information (including names and addresses) from HIV test results before sharing the information with CDC. CDC uses this information for reporting purposes and does not share this information with any other organizations.
Anonymous testing means you don’t have to give your name when you take an HIV test. When you take the test, you receive a number. To get your HIV test results, you give the number instead of your name.

Where can I get tested for HIV?
Your health care provider can give you an HIV test. HIV testing is also available at many hospitals, medical clinics, and community health centers. Use this CDC testing locator to find an HIV testing location near you.

You can also buy a home testing kit at a pharmacy or online.

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Difference between HIV positive and HIV negative

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Finger covered witha condomThe number of new HIV cases diagnosed every year worldwide has risen in the recent past. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, over 50,000 people in the U.S. were infected with HIV in 2006.

HIV positive means that the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or HIV anti-bodies have been detected in the body through a test. On the other hand, HIV negative means that the test conducted did not show the presence of HIV virus or any kind of antibodies. However, being HIV negative is not confirmation that the individual does not have HIV.

HIV status test

The HIV status of an individual can be easily determined through a simple blood test, either an antibody test or an RNA test. An oral test for HIV detection is also available in which cheek tissues are swabbed by the doctor and the results are confirmed within 15-20 minutes.

In 2007, The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) included the HIV antibody test in routine care for individuals seeking medical attention for any reason, as a preventative measure to curb the rise. Dr. Chinkholal Thangsing, Agency for Community Care and Development, New Delhi, advises: “Knowing the HIV status of your partner through the test is important as it considerably reduces the risk of getting infected.”

HIV negative

When an individual gets infected, the body’s response mechanism automatically produces antibodies to fight the virus. A negative HIV report normally means that the person is as healthy as before. However - varying from individual to individual - the body may take up to six weeks to produce antibodies for the virus. In such cases, there is a high possibility that the body has caught the infection, but has not yet produced antibodies. In some other cases, it is possible that the level of antibodies is too insignificant to get registered on a test.

HIV positive

Initially, HIV positive individuals may not show any symptoms. In fact, they may appear absolutely healthy from their external appearance. So much so, that most HIV positive patients may not know about their status until after being verified. However, once the presence of the HIV virus is affirmed, positive steps should be taken towards managing the critically life-threatening disease. Post diagnosis, it is recommended to meet a doctor to assess the progression of the virus. Thereafter, proper treatment and medication should be taken to combat its potential hazards.

According to a recent research by The Institute of Liver Studies, London, there was no difference in the survival rates of HIV positive and HIV negative patients following a liver transplant. The study has come as good news for HIV positive patients as it suggests a reasonably good prognosis.

Preventing HIV infection

To prevent HIV infection from spreading, knowledge of the HIV status of your sex partner is important. In most cases, HIV is usually transmitted through semen, vaginal fluids or blood. Besides sexual transmission, the HIV virus is most commonly spread through shared or infected needles. Especially in cases where the HIV status is unknown, safe sex practices are highly recommended.

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एचआयव्ही स्क्रीनिंग चाचणी

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एचआयव्ही स्क्रीनिंग चाचणी

एचआयव्ही चाचणी म्हणजे काय?
एक एचआयव्ही चाचणी दर्शवते की आपणास एचआयव्ही (मानवी इम्यूनोडेफिशियन्सी व्हायरस) आहे का? एचआयव्ही हा एक विषाणू आहे जो प्रतिरक्षा प्रणालीमधील पेशींवर हल्ला करतो आणि नष्ट करतो. हे पेशी आपल्या शरीराला रोगापासून मुक्त करणारे जीवाणू जसे की बॅक्टेरिया आणि व्हायरसपासून संरक्षण करतात. आपण बर्याच रोगप्रतिकारक पेशी गमावल्यास, आपल्या शरीरात संक्रमण आणि इतर रोगांपासून परावृत्त होण्यास त्रास होईल.

एचआयव्ही चा तीन मुख्य प्रकार आहेत :

अँटीबॉडी चाचणी :
या चाचणीमध्ये आपल्या रक्त किंवा लसमधील एचआयव्ही प्रतिपिंड दिसतात. जेव्हा आपण एचआयव्ही सारखे जीवाणू किंवा व्हायरसचा संपर्क साधता तेव्हा आपली रोगप्रतिकारक प्रणाली अँटीबॉडी बनवते. एचआयव्ही अँटीबॉडी तपासणी एचआयव्हीची संसर्ग झाल्यानंतर 3-12 आठवड्यांत असल्यास ठरवू शकते. याचे कारण आपल्या प्रतिरक्षा प्रणालीसाठी एचआयव्हीमध्ये अँटीबॉडी बनविण्यासाठी काही आठवडे किंवा जास्त काळ लागू शकतो. आपण आपल्या घराच्या गोपनीयतेमध्ये एचआयव्ही अँटीबॉडी चाचणी करू शकता. आपल्या आरोग्य सेवा प्रदात्यास घराच्या एचआयव्ही चाचणी किट्सबद्दल विचारा.

एचआयव्ही अँटीबॉडी / अँटीजन चाचणी :
हे चाचणी रक्त एचआयव्ही प्रतिपिंड आणि प्रतिजैविकेसाठी दिसते. एक प्रतिजैविक व्हायरसचा एक भाग आहे जो प्रतिरक्षा प्रतिसादास कारणीभूत ठरतो. जर आपण एचआयव्हीचा संपर्क साधला असेल तर एचआयव्ही एंटीबॉडी बनविण्यापूर्वी ऍन्टिजन आपल्या रक्तात दिसून येतील. हा चाचणी एचआयव्हीला संसर्गाच्या 2-6 आठवड्यांच्या आत शोधू शकतो.
एचआयव्ही प्रतिपिंड / प्रतिजैविक चाचणी :
हा एचआयव्ही चाचण्यांपैकी एक सामान्य प्रकार आहे. एचआयव्ही व्हायरल लोड. हे परीक्षण रक्तातील एचआयव्ही विषाणूचे प्रमाण मोजते. हे एन्टीबॉडी आणि अँटीबॉडी / अँटीजेन चाचण्यांपेक्षा अधिक जलद एचआयव्ही शोधू शकते, परंतु ते खूप महाग आहे. हे बहुतेकदा एचआयव्ही संक्रमणांचे निरीक्षण करण्यासाठी वापरले जाते.

इतर नावे: एचआयव्ही प्रतिपिंड / प्रतिजैविक परीक्षण, एचआयव्ही -1 आणि एचआयव्ही -2 एंटीबॉडी आणि प्रतिजैविक मूल्यांकन, एचआयव्ही चाचणी, एचआयव्ही चाचणी, एचआयव्ही चाचणी, एचआयव्ही पी 24 एंटिजन चाचणी

ते कशासाठी वापरले जाते?
एचआयव्हीचा संसर्ग झाल्यास एचआयव्ही चाचणीचा वापर केला जातो. एचआयव्ही हा असा विषाणू आहे जो एड्स (अधिग्रहित इम्यूनोडेफिशियन्सी सिंड्रोम) होतो. एचआयव्ही असलेल्या बहुतेक लोकांना एड्स नसते. एड्स असलेल्या लोकांमध्ये अत्यंत प्रतिकारशक्ती असलेल्या पेशींची संख्या कमी असते आणि त्यांना जीवघेणा आजारांमधे धोकादायक संक्रमण, गंभीर प्रकारचे निमोनिया आणि कांपोसी सारकोमासह काही विशिष्ट कर्करोगांचा धोका असतो.

एचआयव्ही लवकर आढळल्यास, आपल्या प्रतिकार यंत्रणेचे संरक्षण करण्यासाठी औषधे मिळू शकतात. एचआयव्ही औषधे आपल्याला एड्स मिळण्यापासून प्रतिबंध करू शकतात.

मला एचआयव्ही चाचणीची गरज का आहे?
रोग नियंत्रण आणि प्रतिबंध केंद्र (सीडीसी) ने शिफारस केली आहे की 13 ते 64 वयोगटातील प्रत्येकजण नियमितपणे नियमित आरोग्य सेवेचा भाग म्हणून एचआयव्हीसाठी चाचणी घेईल. जर आपणास संसर्ग होण्याचा धोका असेल तर आपल्याला एचआयव्ही चाचणीची देखील आवश्यकता असू शकते. एचआयव्ही प्रामुख्याने लैंगिक संपर्काद्वारे आणि रक्ताने पसरते, म्हणूनच एचआयव्हीसाठी आपल्याला जास्त धोका असू शकतो जर :
- एखाद्या पुरुषाबरोबर लैंगिक संबंध ठेवणारा माणूस आहे का?
- एचआयव्ही-संक्रमित साथीदाराशी लैंगिक संबंध ठेवलेले आहेत.
- अनेक सेक्स पार्टनर आहेत.
- हेरोइनसारख्या औषधे इंजेक्शनने घेतल्या आहेत किंवा इतरांसह सामायिक केलेल्या औषधी सुयांचा समावेश आहे.
एचआयव्ही जन्माच्या वेळी आणि स्तनपानाच्या दरम्यान आईपासून मुलापर्यंत पसरू शकते, म्हणून आपण गर्भवती असल्यास आपले डॉक्टर एचआयव्ही चाचणी मागू शकतात. गर्भधारणेदरम्यान आणि डिलिव्हरीच्या वेळी आपण औषधे घेऊ शकता जेणेकरुन या रोगाचा आपल्या मुलास प्रसार होण्याचा धोका कमी होईल.

एचआयव्ही चाचणीदरम्यान काय होते?
आपण एकतर लॅबमध्ये रक्त तपासणी कराल किंवा घरी स्वत: चे परीक्षण कराल.

लॅबमध्ये रक्त तपासणीसाठी :
- एक लहान सुई वापरुन, एक हेल्थ केअर व्यावसायिक आपल्या बाहेरील शिरातून रक्त नमुना घेईल. सुई टाकल्यानंतर, चाचणी ट्यूब किंवा शीटमध्ये थोडासा रक्ताचा संग्रह केला जाईल. जेव्हा सुई आत जाते किंवा बाहेर पडते तेव्हा तुम्हाला थोडासा दंश वाटू शकतो. हे सहसा पाच मिनिटांपेक्षा कमी वेळ घेते. होम टेस्टसाठी, आपल्याला आपल्या तोंडातून लवणांचा नमुना किंवा आपल्या बोटांच्या रक्तातून रक्त सोडण्याची आवश्यकता असेल.

चाचणी किट आपले नमुना कसे मिळवावे, पॅकेज करावे आणि लॅबवर पाठवावे याबद्दल सूचना प्रदान करेल. लक्षाच्या चाचणीसाठी आपण आपल्या तोंडातून घास घेण्यास विशेष स्पॅटुला-सारखे साधन वापराल. बोटांच्या एन्टीबॉडी रक्त चाचणीसाठी, आपण आपल्या बोटाने ठोका आणि रक्त नमुना गोळा करण्यासाठी एक विशेष साधन वापरेल.
घरगुती चाचणीसाठी अधिक माहितीसाठी, आपल्या आरोग्य सेवा प्रदात्याशी बोला.

परीक्षेच्या तयारीसाठी मला काही करण्याची गरज आहे का?
एचआयव्ही चाचणीसाठी आपल्याला कोणत्याही खास तयारीची गरज नाही. परंतु आपण यापूर्वी आणि / किंवा आपल्या चाचणीनंतर परामर्शदात्याशी बोलावे जेणेकरून आपल्याला एचआयव्हीचे निदान झाल्यास परिणाम म्हणजे काय आणि आपल्या उपचार पर्यायांचा चांगला अर्थ समजू शकेल.

चाचणीचे काही धोके आहेत का?
एचआयव्ही स्क्रीनिंग चाचणी घेण्याचा धोका फारच कमी असतो. जर आपल्याला लॅबमधून रक्त तपासणी मिळत असेल तर सुईमध्ये ठेवलेल्या जागी तुम्हाला थोडा वेदना किंवा त्रास होऊ शकतो, परंतु बहुतेक लक्षणे लवकर निघून जातात.

याचा परिणाम काय आहे?
आपले परिणाम नकारात्मक असल्यास, याचा अर्थ असा आहे की आपल्याला एचआयव्ही नाही. नकारात्मक परिणामाचा अर्थ असा आहे की आपल्याला एचआयव्ही आहे परंतु सांगणे फार लवकर आहे. एचआयव्ही प्रतिपिंड आणि प्रतिजैव्यांना आपल्या शरीरात दर्शविण्यास काही आठवडे लागू शकतात. आपले परिणाम ऋणात्मक असल्यास, आपले आरोग्य सेवा प्रदाता नंतरच्या तारखेला अतिरिक्त एचआयव्ही तपासणी करण्यास सांगू शकते.

आपला परिणाम सकारात्मक असल्यास, निदान पुष्टी करण्यासाठी आपल्याला फॉलो-अप चाचणी मिळेल. जर दोन्ही चाचण्या सकारात्मक असतील तर याचा अर्थ एचआयव्ही आहे. याचा अर्थ असा नाही की आपल्याला एड्स आहे. एचआयव्हीचा कोणताही उपचार नसताना, पूर्वीपेक्षा चांगले उपचार उपलब्ध आहेत. आज, एचआयव्ही असलेले लोक आतापर्यंत आयुष्यापेक्षा चांगले आयुष्य जगतात. आपण एचआयव्हीसह जगलात तर, आपले हेल्थ केअर प्रदाता नियमितपणे पहाणे महत्वाचे आहे.

Dr. Dr.Sandip Narkhede
Dr. Dr.Sandip Narkhede
MS/MD - Ayurveda, Infertility Specialist Lactation Consultant, 10 yrs, Pune
Dr. Mahesh Mahjan
Dr. Mahesh Mahjan
BAMS, Ayurveda, 19 yrs, Pune
Dr. Niranjan Pathak
Dr. Niranjan Pathak
MD - Allopathy, Cardiologist Diabetologist, 9 yrs, Pune
Dr. Varshali Mali
Dr. Varshali Mali
MBBS, Gynaecologist Obstetrician, 6 yrs, Pune
Dr. Renu Vatkar
Dr. Renu Vatkar
MDS, Pune
Hellodox
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