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Ebola Virus

Dr. HelloDox Care #
HelloDox Care
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Ebola Virus Disease

What is Ebola Virus Disease?
Ebola Virus Disease is a rare and deadly disease most commonly affecting people and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebolavirus:

Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus)
Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus)
Taï Forest virus (species Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus)
Bundibugyo virus (species Bundibugyo ebolavirus)
Reston virus (species Reston ebolavirus)
Bombali virus (species Bombali ebolavirus)
Of these, only four (Ebola, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo viruses) are known to cause disease in people. Reston virus is known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people. It is unknown if Bombali virus, which was recently identified in bats, causes disease in either animals or people.


Transmission
Scientists think people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate. This is called a spillover event. After that, the virus spreads from person to person, potentially affecting a large number of people.
The virus spreads through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with:
Blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from EVD
Objects (such as needles and syringes) contaminated with body fluids from a person sick with EVD or the body of a person who died from EVD
Infected fruit bats or nonhuman primates
Semen from a man who recovered from EVD (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex)
The Ebola virus cannot spread to others when a person shows no signs or symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease. Ebola virus is not usually transmitted by food. However, in certain parts of the world, Ebola virus may spread through the handling and consumption of bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food). There is also no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.

Symptoms
Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease include:
Fever
Severe headache
Muscle pain
Weakness
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Abdominal pain
Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding)
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after contact with the virus, with an average of 8 to 10 days. Many common illnesses can have these same symptoms, including influenza (flu) or malaria.

EVD is a rare but severe and often deadly disease. Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive clinical care and the patient’s immune response. Studies show that survivors of Ebola virus infection have antibodies (molecules that are made by the immune system to label invading pathogens for destruction) that can be detected in the blood up to 10 years after recovery.

Prevention
While in an area affected by Ebola, it is important to avoid the following:
Contact with blood and body fluids (such as urine, feces, saliva, sweat, vomit, breast milk, semen, and vaginal fluids).
Items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids (such as clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment).
Funeral or burial rituals that require handling the body of someone who died from EVD.
Contact with bats and nonhuman primates or blood, fluids and raw meat prepared from these animals (bushmeat) or meat from an unknown source.
Contact with semen from a man who had EVD until you know the virus is gone from the semen.
These same prevention methods apply when living in or traveling to an area affected by an Ebola outbreak. After returning from an area affected by Ebola, monitor your health for 21 days and seek medical care immediately if you develop symptoms of EVD.


Diagnosis
Diagnosing Ebola Virus Disease shortly after infection can be difficult. Early symptoms of EVD such as fever, headache, and weakness are not specific to Ebola virus infection and often are seen in patients with other more common diseases, like malaria and typhoid fever.
To determine whether Ebola virus infection is a possible diagnosis, there must be a combination of symptoms suggestive of EVD and a possible exposure to EVD within 21 days before the onset of symptoms. An exposure may include contact with:
blood or body fluids from a person sick with or who died from EVD
objects contaminated with blood or body fluids of a person sick with or who died from EVD
infected fruit bats and primates
semen from a man who has recovered from EVD
If a person shows early signs of EVD and has had a possible exposure, he or she should be isolated and public health authorities notified. Blood samples from the patient should be collected and tested to confirm infection. Ebola virus can be detected in blood after onset of symptoms, most notably fever. It may take up to three days after symptoms start for the virus to reach detectable levels. A positive laboratory test means that Ebola infection is confirmed. Public health authorities will conduct a public health investigation, including tracing of all possibly exposed contacts.


Treatment
Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease are treated as they appear. When used early, basic interventions can significantly improve the chances of survival. These include:
Providing fluids and electrolytes (body salts) through infusion into the vein (intravenously).
Offering oxygen therapy to maintain oxygen status.
Using medication to support blood pressure, reduce vomiting and diarrhea and to manage fever and pain.
Treating other infections, if they occur.
Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive care and the patient’s immune response. Those who do recover develop antibodies that can last 10 years, possibly longer. It is not known if people who recover are immune for life or if they can later become infected with a different species of Ebola virus. Some survivors may have long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems.



Published  

Ebola

Dr. HelloDox Care #
HelloDox Care
Consult

Ebola Virus Disease

What is Ebola Virus Disease?
Ebola Virus Disease is a rare and deadly disease most commonly affecting people and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebolavirus:

Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus)
Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus)
Taï Forest virus (species Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus)
Bundibugyo virus (species Bundibugyo ebolavirus)
Reston virus (species Reston ebolavirus)
Bombali virus (species Bombali ebolavirus)
Of these, only four (Ebola, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo viruses) are known to cause disease in people. Reston virus is known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people. It is unknown if Bombali virus, which was recently identified in bats, causes disease in either animals or people.


Transmission
Scientists think people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate. This is called a spillover event. After that, the virus spreads from person to person, potentially affecting a large number of people.
The virus spreads through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with:
Blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from EVD
Objects (such as needles and syringes) contaminated with body fluids from a person sick with EVD or the body of a person who died from EVD
Infected fruit bats or nonhuman primates
Semen from a man who recovered from EVD (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex)
The Ebola virus cannot spread to others when a person shows no signs or symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease. Ebola virus is not usually transmitted by food. However, in certain parts of the world, Ebola virus may spread through the handling and consumption of bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food). There is also no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.

Symptoms
Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease include:
Fever
Severe headache
Muscle pain
Weakness
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Abdominal pain
Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding)
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after contact with the virus, with an average of 8 to 10 days. Many common illnesses can have these same symptoms, including influenza (flu) or malaria.

EVD is a rare but severe and often deadly disease. Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive clinical care and the patient’s immune response. Studies show that survivors of Ebola virus infection have antibodies (molecules that are made by the immune system to label invading pathogens for destruction) that can be detected in the blood up to 10 years after recovery.

Prevention
While in an area affected by Ebola, it is important to avoid the following:
Contact with blood and body fluids (such as urine, feces, saliva, sweat, vomit, breast milk, semen, and vaginal fluids).
Items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids (such as clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment).
Funeral or burial rituals that require handling the body of someone who died from EVD.
Contact with bats and nonhuman primates or blood, fluids and raw meat prepared from these animals (bushmeat) or meat from an unknown source.
Contact with semen from a man who had EVD until you know the virus is gone from the semen.
These same prevention methods apply when living in or traveling to an area affected by an Ebola outbreak. After returning from an area affected by Ebola, monitor your health for 21 days and seek medical care immediately if you develop symptoms of EVD.


Diagnosis
Diagnosing Ebola Virus Disease shortly after infection can be difficult. Early symptoms of EVD such as fever, headache, and weakness are not specific to Ebola virus infection and often are seen in patients with other more common diseases, like malaria and typhoid fever.
To determine whether Ebola virus infection is a possible diagnosis, there must be a combination of symptoms suggestive of EVD and a possible exposure to EVD within 21 days before the onset of symptoms. An exposure may include contact with:
blood or body fluids from a person sick with or who died from EVD
objects contaminated with blood or body fluids of a person sick with or who died from EVD
infected fruit bats and primates
semen from a man who has recovered from EVD
If a person shows early signs of EVD and has had a possible exposure, he or she should be isolated and public health authorities notified. Blood samples from the patient should be collected and tested to confirm infection. Ebola virus can be detected in blood after onset of symptoms, most notably fever. It may take up to three days after symptoms start for the virus to reach detectable levels. A positive laboratory test means that Ebola infection is confirmed. Public health authorities will conduct a public health investigation, including tracing of all possibly exposed contacts.


Treatment
Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease are treated as they appear. When used early, basic interventions can significantly improve the chances of survival. These include:
Providing fluids and electrolytes (body salts) through infusion into the vein (intravenously).
Offering oxygen therapy to maintain oxygen status.
Using medication to support blood pressure, reduce vomiting and diarrhea and to manage fever and pain.
Treating other infections, if they occur.
Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive care and the patient’s immune response. Those who do recover develop antibodies that can last 10 years, possibly longer. It is not known if people who recover are immune for life or if they can later become infected with a different species of Ebola virus. Some survivors may have long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems.



Published  

इबोला विषाणू रोग

Dr. HelloDox Care #
HelloDox Care
Consult



इबोला विषाणू रोग

इबोला विषाणू रोग (ईव्हीडी) किंवा इबोला रक्तस्त्रावी ताप (ईएचएफ) (संक्षिप्त नाव: एबोला, इबोला) हा मनुष्य व इतर सस्तन प्राण्यांना होणारा एक रोग आहे. हा रोग एबोला नावाच्या विषाणूची लागण झाल्यामुळे होतो. ताप, घसादुखी, स्नायूदुखी, उलट्या इत्यदी एबोला रोगाची लक्षणे विषाणूबाधा झाल्याच्या दोन दिवस ते ३ आठवड्यांदरम्यान दिसू लागतात. त्यानंतर ६ ते १६ दिवसांत रोगी मृत्यूमुखी पडण्याची शक्यता आहे. हा रोग संसर्गजन्य असून एका मनुष्याद्वारे दुसऱ्यामध्ये पसरू शकतो. एबोला रोगावर सध्या कोणताही अधिकृत उपचार किंवा लस उपलब्ध नाही. मात्र, प्रादुर्भाव झालेल्या प्राणी व माणसांना अन्य प्राणी व माणसांपासून वेगळे ठेवत प्रचंड काळजी घ्यावी लागते.[१]

ह्या विषाणूचा शिरकाव एखाद्या बाधित प्राण्याच्या (सामान्यत: माकडे किंवा वटवाघळे) रक्त किंवा शारीरिक द्रवपदार्थ यांच्याशी संपर्काद्वारे होतो. नैसर्गिक वातावरणात हवेतून पसरण्याबद्दल अद्याप खात्री नाही.[२] बाधित नसताना देखील वटवाघळे हा विषाणू वाहून नेऊ शकतात आणि पसरवू शकतात असे मानले जाते. मानवी संसर्ग झाल्यानंतर मात्र, हा रोग लोकांमध्ये देखील पसरू शकतो.

बाधित माकडे आणि रुग्णांपासून माणसांमध्ये या रोगाचा फैलाव कमी करणे याचा प्रतिबंधात समावेश होतो. अशा प्राण्यांना संसर्गासाठी तपासून आणि जर रोग आढळला तर त्यांना मारून आणि त्यांचे शरीर व्यवस्थित नष्ट करून हे केले जाऊ शकते. मांस व्यवस्थित शिजवणे आणि मांस हाताळताना संरक्षणात्मक कपडे घालणे, तसेच रोग्याच्या आसपास असताना संरक्षणात्मक कपडे घालणे आणि हात धुणे हे सुद्धा उपयोगी ठरू शकते.

एबोला रोगाला उच्च मृत्यूदर आहे: विषाणूने बाधित झालेले 50% ते 90% बर्‍याचदा मृत्यू पावतात. ईव्हीडीची ओळख १९७६ साली पहिल्यांदा आफ्रिका खंडातील सुदान आणि झैर येथे झाली. तेव्हापासून २०१३ पर्यंत आफ्रिकेमध्ये एबोलाचे १,७१६ व्यक्तींना एबोलाची बाधा झाली होती.

२०१४ इबोला साथ
२०१४ साली प्रामुख्याने पश्चिम आफ्रिकेमधील गिनी, लायबेरिया व सियेरा लिओन ह्या देशांमध्ये तसेच नायजेरियामध्ये एबोलाची तीव्र साथ आली असून या वर्षी एबोलाचे २०,०८१ रुग्ण आढळून आले. ह्यांपैकी ७,८४२ रुग्ण एबोलामुळे मरण पावले आहेत. या वर्षी ह्या रोगाची लागण झालेल्या सहा व्यक्ती माली देशात व एक व्यक्ती अमेरिकेत दगावली. स्पेन या प्रगत देशामध्ये देखील या रोगाचा रुग्ण आढळून आल्यामुळे जागतिक आरोग्य आणिबाणीसदृश परिस्थिती निर्माण झाली आहे. ह्या रोगाचा प्रादुर्भाव वेळीच रोखला नाही तर दर आठवड्याला १० हजार नवे रुग्ण ह्या वेगाने एबोलाची साथ वाढेल असा इशारा विश्व स्वास्थ्य संस्थेने दिला आहे.

Dr. Niranjan Pathak
Dr. Niranjan Pathak
MD - Allopathy, Cardiologist Diabetologist, 9 yrs, Pune
Dr. Minal Sapate
Dr. Minal Sapate
BDS, Dentist Cosmetic and Aesthetic Dentist, 15 yrs, Pune
Dr. Shashikant J Avhad
Dr. Shashikant J Avhad
MD - Allopathy, Obstetrics and Gynecologist, 5 yrs, Pune
Dr. Pradnya  Gurav
Dr. Pradnya Gurav
MD - Homeopathy, Adolescent And Child Psychiatrist Homeopath, 8 yrs, Pune
Dr. Dipak S Kolte
Dr. Dipak S Kolte
MD - Allopathy, Gynaecological Endoscopy Specialist Infertility Specialist, 12 yrs, Pune
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